Many of the necessary effects capable on the saxophone. Demonstrated and explained in detail by orchestral professionals.
Vibrato is a slight undulation in pitch. It can also be a variation in intensity of sound. Either way the effect is of a sound that 'wobbles' slightly. Written instruction in the music - Vib. or Vibrato. Sometimes with a wavy line just after the note. If a composer wants lots of vibrato, they may write Molto Vib. or if a plain sound is required, Non Vib. In orchestral saxophone playing this is normally used as an exaggerated effect and its use also has a historical connotation.
A slide in pitch between notes. The beginning and end note of the glissando are written and connected by either a straight or a wavy line. Usually the word gliss or glissando will be written above. Works well in the upper register. Avoid in the lower register - the key pads make half-holing impossible and there is not enough leeway to use the embouchure to slide effectuively between notes. A number of jazz players do slide between low notes using a careful combination of embouchure control and glissando fingering, but composers should not expect players to be able to do this.
Produced by fingering a fundamental low note, then picking out partials using venting, register keys or octave holes. Notation is an o - over the notehead (It is probably a good idea to include a note explaining whether the notehead is the sounding or fingered pitch). Harmonics form the super-high register of the instrument.
A rapid alternation between two pitches - either a tone or a semitone apart. The notation is indicated by accidentals over the note, if these are not given, players will choose a trill type based on musical context. Wavy lines to indicate the duration of a trill are optional. All trills are possible on the saxophone, but those above A6 are very difficult because of complicated fingerings. timbral trills involve trilling between alternative fingerings for a given note, or using very little embouchure.
A trill or rapid alternation between two notes more than a tone apart. Notated by thick slanting lines between two notes. The tremolo shown on the left lasts for one beat. Some are more successful than others, so composers need to check fingerings carefully.
A very quiet sound notated with verbal instructions - terms used include echo tone, subtone, mezzo voce or sotto voce. To end the subtone passage write normal above the music. Subtone is very effective on the sax, and is under-used in classical music.